During this time, transportation became increasingly important leading to the development of the wheel and sailing. The term coastal defense is the more traditional term, but coastal management has become more popular as the field has expanded to techniques that allow erosion to claim land. Civil engineers ensure that all public techniques and systems are up to standards.  Geotechnical engineers frequently work with professional geologists and soil scientists.. This information is then used by civil engineers, contractors and realtors to design from, build on, and trade, respectively. Site development, also known as site planning, is focused on the planning and development potential of a site as well as addressing possible impacts from permitting issues and environmental challenges. Civil engineering is usually called the mother of all engineering course because without the sampling of the soil on which a building to be built, there cannot be erection of building unless the person want to risk peoples life. Construction surveyors perform the following tasks: Transportation engineering is concerned with moving people and goods efficiently, safely, and in a manner conducive to a vibrant community. Environmental engineers also compile information on environmental consequences of proposed actions. The civil engineer is concerned with the management of engineering projects including planning and control of cost, time, and quality. Structural Engineers. Engineering is much like the other fiels , it is also often Broken down into several Sub-disciplines. In some jurisdictions, the terms sea defense and coastal protection mean defense against flooding and erosion, respectively. There are international agreements between relevant professional bodies to allow engineers to practice across national borders. Some interesting thoughts on civil engineering by Bugliarello (1994) include: Civil engineering is “the modification of nature to create and improve human habitats.” Civil engineers work toward an ideal that is “a standard of perfection, It is considered the second-oldest engineering discipline after military engineering, and it is defined to distinguish non-military engineering from military engineering. The length of study is three to five years, and the completed degree is designated as a bachelor of technology, or a bachelor of engineering. Chen W-F, Scawthorn C. Earthquake Engineering Handbook, CRC Press, 2003, Mitchell, James Kenneth (1993), Fundamentals of Soil Behavior (2nd ed. Materials science is closely related to civil engineering. ), public parks and cycling infrastructure. In the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom and most Commonwealth countries land surveying is considered to be a separate and distinct profession. General civil engineers work closely with surveyors and specialized civil engineers to design grading, drainage, pavement, water supply, sewer service, dams, electric and communications supply. The benefits of certification vary depending upon location. 1. , Structural engineering is concerned with the structural design and structural analysis of buildings, bridges, towers, flyovers (overpasses), tunnels, off shore structures like oil and gas fields in the sea, aerostructure and other structures. Engineering is a career that involves the application of scientific principles to everyday problems. Engineers will either work for the city or for a private firm that has been hired by the city. They existed long before any of the other disciplines of contemporary field existed. Structures, roads, and infrastructure that existed were repetitive, and increases in scale were incremental. Environmental engineering deals with treatment of chemical, biological, or thermal wastes, purification of water and air, and remediation of contaminated sites after waste disposal or accidental contamination. It is believed that the origins of Civil Engineering date back to ancient Egypt when shelter, infrastructure and transportation were an important community need. Municipal engineering is concerned with municipal infrastructure. Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works like bridges, roads, canals, dams and buildings. Site engineers spend time visiting project sites, meeting with stakeholders, and preparing construction plans. Bridges, buildings, offshore structures, space platforms, amusement park rides, and many other kinds of projects are included within this exciting discipline. Public health engineering and environmental health engineering are other terms being used. These all Sub-discipline have their own importance in our society ,Historically the main branches of Engineering are : Aerospace Engineering- The design of aircraft, spacecraft and every thing concern with the flying stuffs . In the United States, an engineering degree usually takes four years and students can specialize in disciplines such as civil, chemical, computer, electrical, mechanical, and other areas of engineering. Because of the diversity of the materials dealt with, the practice, for more than 50 years, has been to analyze chemical engineering problems in terms of fundamental unit operations or unit processes such as the grinding or pulverizing of solids. Some of these disciplines overlap with other civil engineering specialties, however municipal engineering focuses on the coordination of these infrastructure networks and services, as they are often built simultaneously, and managed by the same municipal authority. Engineering students typically study one of the main branches of engineering: chemical, electrical, civil, and mechanical. It is the task of the chemical engineer to select and specify the design that will best meet the particular requi… The structural engineer must design structures to be safe for their users and to successfully fulfill the function they are designed for (to be serviceable). Materials engineering involves protection and prevention (paints and finishes). Choose a discipline of engineering (other than chemical, civil, electrical and mechanical) that is of interest to you. The consequences of failure are dealt with by the law of product liability. 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